Tver (Russian: Тверь) is a mid-size city in Western Russia, its the administrative center of Tver Oblast. Population: 405,500 (2007). Tver, which is a marin3 hours drive north of Moscow, was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in Imperial Russia with population of 60,000 on 14 January 1913. It is at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990.
The first written record of Tver was dated 1135. Originally a minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (1271), from whom a dynasty of local princes descended. Four of them were killed by the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox Church. Formerly a land of woods and bogs, the Tver principality was quickly transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states. As the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the recently devastated South. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain.
In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne. The claimants were backed up by Moscow and eventually settled at the Moscow Kremlin court. During the Great Feudal War in Muscovy, Tver once again rose to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasiy Nikitin, to search for gold and diamonds as far as India.
At last, on September 12, 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by Simeon Bekbulatovich, a former khan of Kasimov. The only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 km north-east of Tver.
The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway (and later railway) from Moscow to St. Petersburg. It was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility travelling from the old capital to the new one and back. The royal palace in Tver was lost by a great fire in 1763, later on the city was rebuilt in Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the downtown was thoroughly reconstructed. Crumbling medieval buildings were razed and replaced with imposing Neoclassical buildings. The most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress (designed by the celebrated Matvei Kazakov), and the Ascension church (designed by Prince Lvov and consecrated in 1813).
The Wehrmacht occupied Kalinin for two months in 1941, leaving the city in ashes. A large-scale resistance movement in the city and the region resulted in over 30,000 German soldiers and officers being killed during the occupation of the city. Kalinin was the first major city in Europe to be liberated from the Wehrmacht. During the Cold War Kalinin was home to the air base Kryuchkovo, which is no longer in service. The historic name of Tver was restored in 1990.<
White Trinity Church (1564) is the only remaining ancient monument of Tver city. Also there are a lot of buildings of Catharine the Great and Soviet times. Highly rated in the region Tver State University is located in the city. Also there are agricultural, medical, military academies and technical university in Tver city of Russia
Migalovo (also given as Tver Migalovo, Kalinin) (IATA: KLD, ICAO: UUEM) is an air base in Tver Oblast, Russia located 10 km west of Tver. It is a large military airlift base. It currently houses all of Russia's remaining Antonov An-22 fleet. It is an Ilyushin Il-76 base, with some Antonov An-12 aircraft stored.
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As part of the August 2009 Aeroprint Moscow Aviation tour we visited this large base. It's a 3 hours drive from Moscow and we shared two coaches. Upon arrival we had to wait about an hour in the woods near a secondary gate. We then got permission to go on the base and under perfect light conditions we were able to walk part of the An-22 ramps. It was hoped that the recently painted camouflaged An-22 would be available to photograph but it was undergoing maintenance at the time the visit in preparation for the MAKS 2009 air show. However we were in for a surprise as one of the base commanders told us that a single AN-22 was inbound to the base and that we could photograph it landing! I would like to give a big thanks to our lovely Russian tour leader who works together with Aeroprints: Olga Bogoyavlenskaya. She really made the long bus rides a memorable occasion with her typical Russian tourist information and jokes. Check out her website: www.rusadventure.com